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Corresponding author. Received Mar 9; Accepted Jun 4. Copyright © The Author s. Abstract Background The adipocyte expansion is a critical process with implications in the pathogenesis of obesity associated metabolic syndrome. Impaired adipogenesis leads to dysfunctional, hypertrophic adipocytes, local inflammation and peripheric insulin resistance.

Results The lipid accumulation measured as optical density at nm of ASCs during their differentiation to adipocytes was significantly lower in ASCs isolated from obese patients as compared to ASCs isolated from normal weight patients 0.

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The abnormal lipid accumulation in the mature adipocyte derived from obese ASCs could possible predict the further development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in severely obese patients and influence the selection of patients for bariatric surgery.

As the metabolic syndrome is an important predictor, not only for cardiovascular mortality but also for all-cause mortality, the evaluation of the metabolic status of the obese patients needs to be performed precociously and by accurate methods [ 1 ].

The current definition of the International Diabetes Federation IDF for the metabolic syndrome [ 2 ] includes the assets of the cardiovascular risk factors that are considered the best predictors for cardiovascular mortality for obese and non-obese patients and includes parameters that can be accessible for screening [ 3 adipos tissue fat burner.

Insulin resistance evaluation by HOMA-IR is considered as a good cardiovascular risk predictor [ 4 ], being also demonstrated as a valuable criteria for recognition of the obese individuals with a higher mortality risk [ 1 ].

Insulin resistance is closely associated with disturbances of fat metabolism [ 6 ]. Thus, exceeding the storage capacity of the subcutaneous adipose tissues results in lipotoxicity, a condition characterized by fatty acid infiltration of insulin target tissues i. High leptin levels and leptin:adiponectin ratio are predictors of obesity related complications as type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM and hypertension independent of BMI or the metabolic syndrome MetS criteria [ 7 — 9 ].

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The subcutaneous fat mass expansion is initiated by adipocyte hyperplasia, a physiological process that generates new mature adipose cells through activation and differentiation of multipotent stem progenitors. However, increasing expansion requirements eventually exceeds the individual adipogenic differentiation capacity of preadipocytes.

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When this adipogenic potential is reached, excessive lipid accumulation results in a dysfunctional adipose tissue [ 10 — 14 ], due to adipocyte hypertrophy, decreased adipogenesis and angiogenesis [ 1516 ].

Subcutaneous adipose tissue consists predominantly of adipocytes, but also contains other cell populations generally referred to as the stromal vascular fraction SVF. Zuk et al.

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These isolated adipose tissue-derived stem cells ASCs display a capacity of differentiation like MSCs and show the expression of the specific stem cell markers in vivo [ 18 ].

ASCs however have a series of advantages as a multipotent differentiation source as they are more accessible by simple subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy, a repeatable minimally invasive method, the isolation procedure is simple and the stem cell quality and proliferation capacity that does not decline with the age of the patient [ 19 ]. After isolation and proliferation of these ASCs, they can be used for experimental study of the molecular processes in sfaturi pentru a ajuta la pierderea de grăsimi adipocyte differentiation [ 20 ].

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Previous studies evaluated the changes induced by obesity in the adipogenic differentiation of ASCs with controversial results: from enhanced [ 2122 ], unchanged [ 23 ] to decreased adipogenesis [ 24 — 27 ].

This could be attributed to ASCs isolated from obesity donors with distinct stages of obesity, different ages, as well as with or without metabolic dysfunction.

The aim of our experimental study was to assess the adipogenic capacity of subcutaneous ASCs in obese female patients prior to bariatric surgery in relation to plasma metabolic and hormonal parameters.

  1. Это была концепция, обычная для множества древних верований, и представляется странным, что идея, не имевшая под собой ни малейшего рационального основания, стала в конце концов одной из величайших целей В естественной Вселенной никто никогда не встречал интеллект, лишенный телесной оболочки,-- продолжал Коллитрэкс.
  2. Со времени встречи с Хедроном события словно автоматически направляли его к предопределенной цели.
  3. Даже в самые интимные моменты барьер его уникальности вставал между ним и его возлюбленной.
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Materials and methods Characteristics of the study group The study included 20 obese female patients OB groupreferred for Laparoscopic Sleeve Adipos tissue fat burner LSG and seven normal weight females NW group, control with other abdominal surgery indications.

The mean body mass index BMI was The age ranges of the two groups matched, with a mean of Biochemical measurements Blood samples were collected after 12 h of fast, before the bariatric surgery procedure.

Plasma concentrations of insulin and total morning cortisol a. ASCs isolation and proliferation ASC culture was derived using a protocol described by Lyons [ 26 ], starting from a small amount of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue less than 1 g remained in the trocar during the laparoscopic procedure, so that to not create supplemental patient discomfort to the bariatric surgery procedure.

The sample was washed in 0. The washed digested tissue was subjected to red blood cells lysis and released cells were passed through a 70 μm-cell strainer before being re-suspended at a density of 1. Undifferentiated control cells were run in parallel with cells cultured in maintenance medium adipos tissue fat burner.

Absorbance values for each plate expressed the lipid accumulation quantification. Immunofluorescence analysis To evaluate the mesenchymal features of the cells, a monoclonal anti-vimentin antibody Cell Adipos tissue fat burner Tech, D21H3 coupled with Alexa Fluor® was used for immunofluorescent labelling of control and differentiated cells.

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To these aims, cells were permeabilized in Triton X 0. At the end of the procedures, the stained cells were washed and evaluated under a fluorescent microscope ZeissAxio Observer Z1 microscope. Comparisons between parameters in obese patients and normoponderal controls were performed using the Mann—Whitney test.

Significantly higher plasma concentrations of leptin and leptin:adiponectin ratio values were found in OB group as compared with NW group.

No significant diferences were obtained for plasma morning cortisol and adiponectin Table 1. Table 1 Characteristics of the obese patients and normal weight controls.